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Gastritis

  1. Types of gastritis
  2. Endogenous causes of gastritis
  3. Symptoms of gastritis
  4. Diagnosis of gastritis
  5. How to treat gastritis
  6. Complications of gastritis
  7. Preventive measures for gastritis

 

GastritisGastritis means inflammatory processes in the mucous membrane of the stomach, whereby the organ undergoes pathological changes. This kind of disease can have different roots and may also proceed in different ways. Science specifies the primary gastritis of the stomach, which is an independent pathology, and a secondary gastritis (it occurs due to poisoning, infections and other unfavorable circumstances). Helicobacteriosis most often causes painful feelings in the abdomen, which may appear after having meal or even before. Other symptoms include nausea, constipation, diarrhea, and heartburn.

Types of gastritis

Depending on the nature of the disease, the following types of gastritis are distinguished:

  • Acute gastritis. It is a fast developing inflammation that can reveal itself for several hours after the provoking factor struck the body. In most cases, such an ailment appears due to intestinal infections and poisoning by bacterial-type toxins (eg, due to unhealthy eating habits). Sometimes acute gastritis is provoked by pharmaceuticals, chemicals and other substances that damage a gastric mucosa. They are alcohols, alkalis and acids.
  • Chronic gastritis. This kind of disease proceeds quite slow, but it leads to pathologies in performing stomach anyway, up to the death of its mucosa. Acute gastritis can turn into a chronic one; while the patient has alternating remissions and exacerbations. Sometimes it is quite challenging to guess about present disease, because it does not provoke a bad state of health or reveal any alarming symptoms. Such things like bad diet, too hot or peppery meal, food causing allergic reactions, broken metabolism, smoking and alcohol can worsen the course of the desease.

What processes occur in our body when the disease happens? Disease-causing bacteria (Helicobacter pylori) reproduce in the stomach and gradually destroy its mucous. As a response, the mucous emits specific substances, thus trying to heal the dead cells. There is an internal conflict, which leads to painful feelings, inflammation, decreasing appetite, heartburn and other signs of gastritis.

Endogenous causes of gastritis

Inside the body, gastritis can be stimulated by the following factors:

  • genetic predisposition to gastrointestinal diseases;
  • duodenal reflux;
  • weakening cell protective function at the level of the immune system;
  • hormonal failures;
  • automatic spread of pathologies striking adjacent organs.

Duodenal reflux is the process of unhealthy bile ingestion from the duodenum into the stomach. As a result, the gastric walls become irritated and its acid changes its chemical composition. Most often, pathology occurs first in the antral part of the stomach, and then affects the entire organ as a whole.

Weakening cell protective function at the level of the immune system means that cells cease to function normally. This leads to a number of separate pathological processes that also alter the pH balance of gastric juice and irritate its walls. As a result, internal poisoning happens, and the stomach begins to react negatively to the acidic environment of its own juice.

Symptoms of gastritis

Symptoms of gastritis

Gastritis reveals by suffering stomach layer integrity. Often the disease can is unnoticable, however, in the end, the patient feels heaviness after the feast, unpleasant cramps in the abdomen, vomiting, worsening appetite, weight loss, etc. There is no exact algorithm for developing gastritis signs: the symptoms can appear and then disappear, and their intensity can vary depending on the course of the disease and those drugs you take.

The acute form features the following phenomena:

  • pain in the abdomen: it occurs in the form of sudden attacks or, on the contrary, painful feelings are tight and last for a long time. In most cases, pain happens when having meal: unpleasant feelings increase when the stomach is empty and after having meal;
  • nausea (can be permanent or episodic, usually occurs immediately after having meal);
  • heartburn (feeling of painful burning in the esophagus);
  • belching (after having meal or even when the stomach is empty, sometimes it smells sour);
  • frequent vomiting (at first the the body rejects only contents of the stomach, and then green or yellow mucus starts to come out);
  • copious salivation (this is how our body reacts to digestion);
  • sometimes the oral cavity, on the contrary, can dry out (this is due to dehydration accompanying vomiting);
  • constipation or diarrhea;
  • general depression, dizziness, headache, increased sweating, fever, lowering blood pressure, increased heart rate (appearing tachycardia).

The chronic form of Helicobacteriosis can be characterized by normal, low or high acidity. These are, respectively, an anacid, a hyperacid and a hypoacid gastritis disorders.

If the acidity is normal or increased, the patient feels pain, heartburn and heaviness after having meal. Sometimes a person has difficulties with defecation.

Chronic gastritis features increased acidity , which means eructations with sour taste, vomiting, pain with long abstinence from haing meal and unpleasant feelings in the stomach at night.

Low acidity features unpleasant aftertaste in the tongue, bad appetite, nausea, grumbling in the abdomen and stool disorders.

Chronic Helicobacteriosis with low acidity can be revealed by increased salivation, a feeling of overflow in the abdomen, anemia and lack of interest in meals. If the disease continues for many years, then a person can lose weight and feel permanent weakness.

Diagnosis of gastritis

Chronic gastritis is revealed in several stages:

  • Clinical research (the doctor listens to the patient's complaints, makes up the history of his/her illness, conducts an examination, formulates a preliminary diagnosis and makes up a plan for further procedures and examinations needed to be passed).
  • Endoscopic research + biopsy ( checking if Helicobacter pylori is present in the body, peculiarities of the gastric mucosa structure are revealed, presence of precancerous processes in the mucosa is specified). The biopsy is performed on the basis of at least 5 elements of the biomaterial (2 taken in the antrum, 2 in the main section and 1 in the corner of the stomach).
  • Laboratory tests (the patient should undergo a clinical analysis of blood, urine and feces, blood biochemistry and stool analysis for the presence of hidden blood). This will also determine the presence of a gastritic bacterium in the body.
  • Ultrasound of the liver, pancreas and gallbladder (the doctors will check the presence of parallel gastrointestinal disorders).
  • Intragastric pH-metry (required to analyze acidity of gastric juice and to check for possible disorders if there are acid-dependent gastrointestinal diseases).
  • Electrogastroenterography (needed to research motor-evacuation function of the gastrointestinal tract, as a result of which duodenogastric reflux can be detected).
  • Manometry of upper gastrointestinal tract (reveals reflux-gastritis). In patients with this disease, the duodenum pressure is about 200 mm of water column, while in a healthy person this figure does not exceed 130 mm of water column.

How to treat gastritis

Бактерия Helicobacter pylori

Doctors specializing in the treatment of gastritis prescribe drugs of several types:

  • Detoxifying drugs (antidotes)
  • Antacids;
  • Antiseptics and preparations for disinfection;
  • Remedies against diarrhea;
  • Antibiotics with tetracycline;
  • Sorbents (Filtrum);
  • Allergy medicines (H2 subtype);
  • Enzyme preparations ("Micrasim").

A key task of antigastric therapy is eliminating cause of the disease, as well as those factors provoking evolution or complication of gastritis (eg, due to inappropriate diet, infectious disorders, etc.). It is also important to speed up process of recovery of the gastric mucosa. In addition, there is a number of preventive measures. Thus, the whole complex of prevention includes drug therapy, proper nutrition and preventive measures in case of exacerbation of gastritis.

Treatment of gastritis features a complex affect and largely depends on how and why the disease occurred. Typically, doctors prescribe antibiotics. The patient should take in parallel medicines reducing acidity of gastric juice. Self-treatment should be excepted: a course of therapy and dosage can be prescribed only by the attending physician. Usually the whole process of recovery takes 7-14 days.

Additionally, we would like to highlight that lowering acidity level is a very important stage of treatment. It helps to protect mucous cells, remove discomfort and, in addition, improve the overall effectiveness of drugs prescribed to strike gastritis. Remember that proper diet helps to recover.

Finally, antigastritis therapy also includes using so-called bismuth drug. They help to form a protective shell on the mucosa surface, resulting in mucous cells getting much less susceptible to adverse effects of acids or not affected by this effect.

Complications of gastritis

In general, gastritis is not considered a category of dangerous diseases (except the phlegmonous variety of thу disease). Nevertheless, due to gastritis, the following dangerous events may happen:

  • Bleeding in the stomach;
  • Gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer;
  • Stomach cancer.

With the exception of such effects, gastritis affects mainly process of digestion only. Patients suffering from this disease can deliberately give up eating as they fear it can cause unpleasant feelings. As a result, a person can lose weight, and sometimes food is rejected by the body in the form of vomiting or causes severe heartburn. In addition, gastritis often leads to vitamin deficiency and anemia.

Preventative measures against gastritis

Any person should take measures throughout life to prevent gastritis. For this, give up smoking and limit drinking alcohol, follow healthy diet, work out and try to protect yourself from stress.

 

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