Micrasim / Interesting / Enzymes

Enzymes

  1. General properties of enzymes
  2. Classification
  3. Digestive enzymes
  4. Role of substitution therapy applied with the drug "Miсrasim"

The life of any being is possible due to the inner metabolic processes. These reactions are controlled by natural catalysts, or enzymes. The term "enzymes" comes from the Latin “fermentum”, which means "leaven". The scientists introduced the concept while researching fermentation.

Fermentation using yeast is a typical example of an enzymatic reaction
Fig. 1 - Fermentation using yeast is a typical example of an enzymatic reaction

Mankind has long enjoyed useful properties of the enzymes. For example, cheese has been made from milk with the help of rennet enzyme for many centuries.

Enzymes differ from catalysts in their acting in the living body, while the catalysts act in inanimate nature. The branch of biochemistry, which studies these most significant substances, is called enzymology.

General properties of the enzymes

Enzymes are molecules of a protein nature that interact with various substances, speeding up their chemical transformation in a certain way. At the same time they are not wasted. Every enzyme has an active center joining the substrate, and a catalytic site launching chemical reaction. These substances accelerate the biochemical reactions taking place in the body without raising temperature.

Basic properties of enzymes:

  • specificity, which is the ability to effect only on a specific substrate, for example, lipases effect on fats;
  • catalytic efficiency, shich is the ability of enzymatic proteins to accelerate biological reactions hundreds and thousands of times;
  • regulating ability: the production and activity of enzymes is determined in every cell by a certain chain of transformations that influences the ability of these proteins to synthesize again.

The role of enzymes in the human body can not be overestimated. At the time when the DNA structure was discovered, it was said that one gene was responsible for synthesizing protein, which already determined a certain feature. Now this statement sounds like this: "One gene - one enzyme - one sign". That is, life can not exist without active enzymes living in the cell.

Classification

Depending on the role in chemical reactions, these classes of enzymes are distinguished as following:

Classes

Features

Oxireductases

Catalyze oxidating their substrates by transferring electrons or hydrogen atoms

Transferases

Participate in transferring chemical groups from one substance to another

Hydrolases

Split large molecules into smaller molecules attracting water ones

Liases

Catalyze the cleavage of molecular bonds without the process of hydrolysis

Isomerases

Activate rearranging atoms in a molecule

Ligases(synthetases)

Form bonds with carbon atoms, using the energy of ATP.

 

In a living organism, all the enzymes are divided into intracellular and extracellular. Intracellular include, for example, liver enzymes involved in the reactions of neutralizing various substances that come with blood. They are discovered in the blood with damaged organ, which helps in diagnosing its diseases.

Intracellular enzymes mark damaged internal organs:

  • liver - alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, sorbitol dehydrogenase;
  • kidneys - alkaline phosphatase;
  • prostate gland - acidic phosphatase;
  • heart muscle - lactate dehydrogenase

Extracellular enzymes are secreted by glands into the external environment. The main ones are secreted by the cells of the salivary glands, gastric wall, pancreas, intestine and are actively involved in digestion.

Digestive enzymes

Digestive enzymes are proteins that accelerate the cleavage of large molecules making up food. They divide such molecules into smaller fragments, which are easier to assimilate by cells. The main types of digestive enzymes are proteases, lipases, amylases.

The main digestive gland is pancreas. It produces most of these enzymes, as well as nucleases cleaving DNA and RNA, and peptidases participating in forming free amino acids. And an insignificant amount of the formed enzymes can "process" a large volume of food.

During the enzymatic cleavage of nutrients, energy is released. It is consumed for metabolic processes and vital functions. Without participating enzymes, these processes would occur too slowly, without providing body with sufficient energy reserves.

In addition, the enzymes participating in the process of digestion ensures nutrients disintegrating to molecules that can pass through the cells of the intestinal wall and enter the bloodstream.

Amylase

Amylase is produced by the salivary glands. It influences on the food starch consisting of a long chain of glucose molecules. As a result of acting enzyme, sites consisting of two linked glucose molecules, i.e., fructose, and other short-chain carbohydrates occur. Later they are metabolized to glucose in the intestine and absorbed into the blood.

Salivary glands split only part of the starch. The saliva amylase is active for a short time, while the food is chewed. After entering the stomach, the enzyme is inactivated by its acidic content. Most of the starch is split in the duodenum by acting pancreatic amylase produced by the pancreas.

Short carbohydrates forming under the influence of pancreatic amylase, enter the small intestine. Here, they split up to glucose molecules with the help of maltase, lactase, sucrose, dextrinase. Uncleavable fibers are excreted from the intestine with caloric masses.

Proteases

Proteins are an essential part of the human diet. Enzymes called proteases are necessary to cleaving them. They differ in the place of synthesis, substrates and other features. Some of them are active in the stomach, for example, pepsin. Others are produced by the pancreas and are active in the intestine lumen. In the gland itself, an inactive precursor of the enzyme, chymotrypsinogen, is released, which begins to act only after mixing with acidic food contents, turning into chymotrypsin. This kind of mechanism helps to avoid self-damaging pancreatic caused by protease cells.

Proteases break down food proteins into smaller fragments - polypeptides. Enzymes - peptidases destroy them to amino acids that are absorbed in the intestine.

Lipases

Food fats are destroyed by enzymes called lipases, which are also produced by the pancreas. They break down fat molecules into fatty acids and glycerin. This reaction requires the presence of bile in the lumen of the duodenum, which forms in the liver.

The role of substitution therapy applied with the drug «Micrasim»

For many people suffering from digestive disorders, especially from pancreatic ones, the enzymes prescribed provide functional support to the body and speeds up the healing process. After reducing pancreatitis stroke or other acute moment, the intake of enzymes can be stopped, as the body independently restores their secretion.

Long-term use of enzyme preparations is necessary only with severe exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas.

In this case, one of the most physiological drugs is "Micrasim." It consists of amylase, proteases and lipase contained in pancreatic juice. Therefore, it is not necessary to pick up which enzyme should be used in a variety of diseases of this organ.

Signs for using the medication:

  • chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis and other causes of insufficient secretion of pancreatic enzymes;
  • inflammatory diseases of the liver, stomach, intestines, especially after surgeries, for a faster recovery of the digestive system;
  • bad nutrition;
  • malfunctioning of the chewing, for example, if thee patient has dental diseases or lack of mobility.

Taking digestive enzymes for a substitution purpose helps to avoid bloating, loose stool, abdominal pain. In addition, if the patient suffers from severe chronic pancreatic diseases, Micrasim assumes the function of splitting nutrients to the fullest. Therefore, they can be easily absorbed by the intestine. This is especially important for children suffering from cystic fibrosis.

 

Important: Before using, read the instructions or consult your doctor

THERE ARE CONTRAINDICATIONS. NEED TO READ THE INSTRUCTION ON USE AND CONSULT THE DOCTOR
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